Components and determinants of the shift between own persona and the clown persona: A hierarchical analysis

Alberto Dionigi, Willibald Friedrich Ruch, Tracey Platt

Abstract


Working in health settings as a clown requires the ability to differentiate between the own persona and the clown persona, and to stay in the role despite a variety of challenging situations. This passage requires a cognitive shift that can be interfered, or facilitated, by several variables. This study aims at operationalizing the components involved in the shift, and relating them to psychological characteristics and other relevant aspects of the training necessary to become a clinic clown. A preliminary 34-item version of the Clown Shift Questionnaire (CSQ) was developed and administered to a sample of 130 Italian clinic clowns. Relevant information such as sociodemographics characteristics, various aspects related to the training received such as length, issues taught, internship carried out, psychological knowledge, and competences in clowning were collected. Four dimensions in the shifting process were identified: Reflective awareness, positive beliefs, interference and anxiety. These dimensions represent a profile of individual differences that may be used to predict the success of the clown intervention. Reflective awareness positively correlates with the aspects related to the training and the years of clown activity, while positive beliefs is a dimension not related to training. Anxiety is higher among females and younger people, and correlates negatively with training aspects and years of activity. Interferences are more frequent among those who received higher psychological knowledge and leads to less satisfaction. Further implications for using the concepts of CSQ in research and in the work of clowns in health settings are discussed.


Keywords


Clown; Cognitive Shift; Training; Instrument Development; Mental Preparation

Full Text:

VIEW FULL TEXT HERE

References


Auerbach, S., Hofmann, J. Platt, T. & Ruch, W. (2013). An investigation of the emotions elicited by hospital clowns in comparison to circus clowns and nursing staff. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Bush, G., Whalen, P. J., Rosen, B. R., Jenike, M. A., Mc Inerney, S. C., & Rauch, S. L. (1998). ‘The counting Stroop: an interference task specialized for functional neuroimaging—validation study with functional MRI’. Human Brain Mapping, 6, pp.270–282. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1998)6:4<270::AID-HBM6>3.0.CO;2-0

Corey, G. (2011). Theory and practice of group counselling. Belmont CA: Thompson.

Dionigi, A., Flangini, R., & Gremigni, P. (2012). ‘Clowns in hospitals’, in Gremigni, P. (ed.), Humor and health promotion, New York, NY: Nova Science Publisher, pp. 213-227

Dionigi, A., Hofmann, J., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2013). The Clown Shift Questionnaire (CSQ). Unpublished research instrument, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Eysenck, M.W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M.G. (2007). ‘Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory’. Emotion, 7, pp.336–353. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336

Eysenck, M. W., & Derakshan, N. (2011). ‘New perspectives in attentional control theory’. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, pp.955-960. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.08.019

Goldberg, L. R. (2006). ‘Doing it all bass-ackwards: The development of hierarchical factor structures from the top down’. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, pp.374-358. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.01.001

Linge, L. (2008). ‘Hospital clowns working in pairs – in synchronized communication with ailing children’. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 3, pp.27-38. doi: 10.1080/17482620701794147

Linge, L. (2012). ‘Magical attachment: Children in magical relations with hospital clowns’. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 7, pp.11862. doi: 10.3402/qhw.v7i0.11862

Lonsdale, C., & Tam, J. T. M. (2007). ‘On the temporal and behavioural consistency of pre-performance routines: An intra-individual analysis of elite basketball players’ free throw shooting accuracy’. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, pp.259-266. doi: 10.1080/02640410701473962

Jacobs, D. (2002). Cognitive Strategies: Applied Psychology Today. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishers.

Koller, D., & Gryski, C. (2008). ‘The life threatened child and the life enhancing clown: towards a model of therapeutic clowning’. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5, pp.17-25. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem033

Mead, G. H. (2009). Mind, self, and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago press.

Meyer-Dinkgräfe, D., Nair, S., & Proctor, D. C. (2012). ‘Performance anxiety in actors: symptoms, explanations and an Indian approach to treatment’. Canadian Journal of Practice-Based Research in Theatre, 4, pp.1-28. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/5711/1/Performance_anxiety_.pdf

Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Moran, A. P. (2012). Sport and exercise psychology. A critical introduction. London & New York: Routledge.

Paivio, A. (1985). ‘Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance’. Canadian journal of applied sport sciences. Journal canadien des sciences appliquées au sport, 10, pp.22S. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4085129

Potter, P., Wolf, L., Boxerman, S., Grayson, D., Sledge, J., Dunagan, C., & Evanoff, B. (2005). ‘Understanding the cognitive work of nursing in the acute care environment’. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35, pp.327-335. Retrieved from : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.78.3548&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Ruch, W., Platt, T., Hofmann, J., Auerbach, S., & Dionigi, A. (2013). Hospital clown research: A positive psychology perspective. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Simmond, C., & Warren, B. (2004). The clown doctor chronicles. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi.

Warren, B. (2009). Hi Jean!: How clown-doctors help facilitate infection control and positive health care practice. In P. Elliott (Ed.), Infection control: A practical approach to psychosocial issues (pp. 149–158). Abingdon, Oxon: Radcliffe Publishing.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7592/EJHR2013.1.4.dionigi

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Publication ethics and malpractice statement