AbstractThis paper studies the use of humour in Estonian accommodation establishments. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how humour is used in the marketing communication and service processes in accommodation establishments. A range of methods were used to answer the research aim, including desktop research on how humour is currently used in accommodation settings, a focus group consisting of international participants, and two online surveys with both accommodation providers and accommodation guest. The results indicate that overall humour is beneficial for accommodation establishments. Respondents mentioned the multiple ways in which humour was used to inform guests about certain accommodation features. This study proposes a decision support model to guide accommodation establishments in how humour could be applied more effectively in their marketing communication and service processes.
Ball, S., & Johnson, K. (2011). Humour in commercial hospitality settings. In C. Lashley & A. Morrison (Eds.), In Search of Hospitality: theoretical perspectives and debates. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 198–216.
Belch, G.E., Belch, M.A., Kerr, G., & Powell, I. (2014). Advertising: An integrated marketing communications perspective. North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill Education Pty Ltd.
Berger, J., & Iyengar, R. (2013). Communication Channels and Word of Mouth: How the Medium Shapes the Message. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(3), 567–579. doi:10.1086/671345
Birch, N. (2011). Using humour in advertising effectively. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/269678/using-humour-in-advertising-effectively
Brand Estonia. (2018). Retrieved November 26, 2018 from https://brand.estonia.ee/et/
Brennan, L., & Binney, W. (2010). Fear, guilt, and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of Business Research, 63(2), 140-146. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.006
Bryman, A. (2003). Disney & His Worlds. London: Routledge.
Carrell, A. (2008). The primer of humour research. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from http://www.humoursummerschool.org/01/articlesNhandouts/Historical_Views.pdf
Darmer, P., & Sundbo, J. (2008). Introduction to Experience Creation. In J. Sundbo & P. Darmer (Eds.), Creating Experiences in the Experience Economy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
EUROSTAT. (2018). Tourism statistics. Retrieved November 26, 2018 from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Tourism_statistics#Tourism_.E2.80.94_demand_and_supply
FitzPatrick, M., Davey, J., Muller, L., & Davey, H. (2013). Value-creating assets in tourism management: Applying marketing's service-dominant logic in the hotel industry. Tourism Management, 36, pp. 86–98. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.009
Freud, S. (1905). Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Vienna: F. Deuticke.
Frew, E. (2006). The humour tourist: A conceptualisation. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), pp. 643–646. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.004
Future Brand. (2014). Country Brand Index 2014–15. Retrieved September 25, 2015 from http://www.futurebrand.com/cbi/2014
Gáll, L.-K. (2011). ‘Special Today – No Ice Cream.’ Accidental Humour in International Public Notices. The Round Table. Partium Journal of English Studies. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from http://theroundtable.partium.ro/Archive/language_studies/laura_karolina_gall_special_today_no_ice_cream_accidental_humour_in_international_public_notices.doc
Halim, N. A. A., & Razak, N. A. (2014). Communication Strategies of Women Leaders in Entrepreneurship. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 118, pp. 21–28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.003
Hellstrom, C., & Lapsley, I. (2016). Humour and happiness in an NPM world: Do they speak in jest? Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 37, pp. 51–64. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpa.2015.04.010
Hiiumaa Tourist Info Center. (2015). Welcome to Hiiumaa! Retrieved September 8, 2015 from http://www.hiiumaa.ee/page/mainpage/25
Holmes, J., & Hay, J. (1997). Humour as an ethnic boundary marker in New Zealand interaction. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 18:2, pp. 127-151. doi: 10.1080/07256868.1997.9963447
Jafari, J. (2000). Encyclopedia of Tourism. London: Routledge.
Johnson, K., & Ball, S. (2000). Humour and Licensed Retailing. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 12 (1), pp. 16–29.
Kotler, P., Jain, D. C., & Maesincee, S. (2002). Marketing Moves: A New Approach to Profits, Growth and Renewal. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders, J., & Armstrong, G. (2005). Principles of Marketing (Fourth European Edition ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Kuosa, T., & Westerlund, L. (Eds.). (2013). Service Design: On the Evolution of Service Expertise. Viljandi: Lahti University of Applied Sciences.
Kurtulay, Z., Taskiran, O., Cetin, G., Kizilirmak, I., Atsiz, O., & Karayilan, E. (2015). Exploring the Boutique Hotel Guest Experience. Paper presented at the International Interdisciplinary Business-Economics Advancement Conference, Las Vegas. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://iibaconference.org/wp-content/uploads/4th_IIBA_Conference_Proceedings_Las_Vegas_May_2015.pdf
LaFave, L. (1972). Humour judgments as a function of reference groups and identification classes. In P. E. McGhee & J. H. Goldstein (Eds.), The psychology of humour: theoretical perspectives and empirical issues, pp. 195–210. New York: Academic Press.
Laroche, M., Nepomuceno, M. V., Huang, L., & Richard, M.-O. (2011). What's So Funny? The Use of Humor in Magazine Advertising in the United States, China, and France, Journal of Advertising Research 51(2), pp. 404–416.
Laroche, M., Vinhal Nepomuceno, M., & Richard, M.-O. (2014). Congruency of humour and cultural values in print ads. International Journal of Advertising, 33(4), pp. 681–705.
Lynch, O. H. (2002). Humorous Communication: Finding a Place for Humour in Communication Research. Communication Theory, 12(4), 423-445. doi:doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2002.tb00277.x
MacKinlay, E. (2004). Humour: A Way to Transcendence in Later Life? Journal of Religious Gerontology, 16(3), 43-58.
Magic Unica. (2018). Estonian Character. Retrieved December 2, 2018 from http://itaaliapuhkus.ee/en/estonian-character
Martin, R. A. (2007). The Psychology of Humour: An Integrative Approach. Burlington: Elsevier.
Martin, R. A., & Ford, T. E. (2018). The psychology of humour: An integrative approach. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 122–123.
McGhee, P. E. (1983). Humour Development: Toward a Life Span Approach. In P. E. McGhee & J. H. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of Humour Research: Volume 1: Basic Issues, pp. 109–134. New York, NY: Springer New York.
McMillan Online Dictionary. (2018). Humour. Retrieved September 16, 2015 from http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/humour_1
Murphy, J. L. (2011). The Country's Acclaim for Depeche Mode May or May not Explain so Many Long Faces. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.popmatters.com/review/149326-estonia-by-alexander-theroux/
Narayan, K., & George, K. (2012). Stories About Getting Stories: Interactional Dimensions in Folk and Personal Narrative Research. In J. F. Gubrium, J. A. Holstein, A. B. Marvasti, & K. D. McKinney (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interview research: the complexity of the graft (2nd ed., pp. 511–524). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Neuendorf, K. A. (2010). The Four Humour Mechanisms. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from http://academic.csuohio.edu/kneuendorf/c32110/TheFourHumorMechanisms42710.pdf
Norrick, N. R. (2010). A Theory of Humour in Interaction. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0222-001261
Pabel, A. &, Pearce, P. L. (2015). Highlighting the benefits of tourism humour: The views of tourists. Tourism Management Perspectives 16, pp. 357–364.
Pabel, A. &, Pearce, P. L. (2016). Tourists' responses to humour. Annals of Tourism Research 57, 190–205.
Pabel, A. &, Pearce, P. L. (2018). Selecting humour in tourism settings – A guide for tourism operators. Tourism Management Perspectives 25, pp. 64–70.
Palmer, J. (1994). Taking humour seriously. London and New York: Routledge.
Pearce, P. L. (2009). NOW THAT IS FUNNY: Humour in Tourism Settings. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(4), pp. 627–644. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.05.003
Pearce, P. L., & Pabel, A. (2015). Tourism and Humour. Bristol: Channel View Publications.
Republic of Estonia Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication. (2014). Accommodation services. Retrieved September 14, 2015 from https://www.mkm.ee/en/objectives-activities/tourism/accommodation-services
Samson, A. C., & Gross, J. J. (2012). Humour as emotion regulation: The differential consequences of negative versus positive humour. Cognition and Emotion, 26(2), pp. 375–384. doi:10.1080/02699931.2011.585069
Seneviratne, D., & Molesworth, B. R. C. (2015). Employing humour and celebrities to manipulate passengers’ attention to pre-flight safety briefing videos in commercial aviation. Safety Science, 75, 130–135. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.01.006
Shaw, G. (2000). Planning and Communicating Using Stories. In M.
Schultz, M. J. Hatch, & M. H. Larsen (Eds.), The Expressive Organization, pp. 182–195). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sirakaya, E., Petrick, J., & Choi, H.-S. (2004). The Role of Mood on Tourism Product Evaluations. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), pp. 517–539. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.01.009
Slivar, I., Periša, A. and Horvat, A. (2018). Destination Marketing Organisations use humour and co-creation: an exploratory study from Croatia. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 16(2), 238-248.
Smuts, A. (2018). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 26, 2018 from https://www.iep.utm.edu/humor/
Speck, P. S. (1991). The Humorous Message Taxonomy: A Framework for the Study of Humorous Ads. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 13(1–2), pp. 1–44.
Statistics Estonia. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.stat.ee/en
Strick, M., Holland, R. W., van Baaren, R. B., Knippenberg, A. v., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2013). Humour in advertising: An associative processing model. European Review of Social Psychology, 24(1), pp. 32–69. doi:10.1080/10463283.2013.822215
UNWTO. (2018). Why tourism? Retrieved from http://www2.unwto.org/content/why-tourism
Van Vliet, V. (2013). Service Marketing mix – 7 P's. Retrieved December 2, 2018 from http://www.toolshero.com/marketing/service-marketing-mix-7ps/
Van Vugt, M., Hardy, C., Stow, J., & Dunbar, R. (2014). Laughter as Social Lubricant: A Biosocial Hypothesis about the Pro-social Functions of Laughter and Humour. Retrieved September 24, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265270173_LAUGHTER_AS_SOCIAL_LUBRICANT_A_Biosocial_Hypothesis_about_the_Pro-social_Functions_of_Laughter_and_Humor
Wall, G. (2017). Tourism and humour (book review). Tourism Recreation Research, 42(4), pp. 546, DOI: 10.1080/02508281.2017.1282579
Warren, C., & McGraw, A. P. (2013). When humour backfires: revisiting the relationship between humorous marketing and brand attitude. Marketing Science Institute Reports, 1(1), pp. 13–124.
Wilson, C. (1979). Jokes form, content, use and function. New York: Academic Press.
Yeoman, I. S. (2018). Tourism and Humour (book review). Journal of Tourism Futures, https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-01-2016-0002
Zhang, C. X. & Pearce, P. L. (2016). Experiencing Englishness: humour and guided tours, Tourism Recreation Research, 41(3), pp. 259–271, DOI:10.1080/02508281.2016.1188486